Coracoid Process

The coracoid process is a curved three-dimensional anatomical structure with a tortuous morphology. Its study was limited to male cadavers, thereby excluding women. However, a new study has demonstrated that a coracoid process may occur in women, and a surgical procedure known as the Learjet procedure can effectively treat the condition.


Sonography of the coracoid process is a common procedure that can be performed on patients with a range of conditions. Usually, it is performed on the patient in the supine position with the head turned away from the side on which the probe is being used. The patient’s arm should be abducted posteriorly with the elbow flexed, which reduces the depth of skin to plexus. This position allows the doctor to better visualize the pectoral muscles and the brachial plexus. In addition, the coracoid process is characterized by its location, and it can be palpated medially to the shoulder.

The coracoid process is a small hook-like structure on the lateral edge of the superior anterior portion of the scapula. Its position varies depending on the relationship of the glenoid joint and the humerus. In certain cases, the coracoid process may become subluxed and result in a clicking sensation in the shoulder.

A large sample size would enhance the accuracy of measurements, and the reliability of measurements would increase. The medial epicondyle of the humerus and coracoid process are reliable landmarks when the humerus is intact, but measurements of these landmarks are not accurate if it is fractured or dislocated. Furthermore, the authors of this study did not include the intraobserver error in their measurements.


There are several types of coracoid process. Some are 8-shaped, blunt at the top and bottom, three times longer than the width, sunken in the middle, and wedge-shaped. Type III is the most common. Type IV is the least common. Each has specific characteristics.

The dimensions of the coracoid process include its length, base width, and tip thickness. The length and base width are measured using a lateral view. The length and tip thickness are also measured in the superior view. The anterior-posterior distance is also measured, as well as the base width and height.

The coracoid process impinges on the head of the humerus, and is also often the site of tears in the subscapularis tendon. It can also be the location of primary breast or metastatic lung tumors. The patient provided written informed consent before undergoing any anatomical investigation.

The coracoid process is a curved, thick projection that runs anteriorly on the scapula. It is attached to the clavicle through the coracoclavicular ligament and is related to several major neurovascular structures. The coracoid process is also palpable on the lateral aspect of the clavipectoral triangle. Several muscles attach to this structure.

Learjet procedure

The Latarjet procedure is a common procedure for stabilizing the shoulder. The surgeon makes an incision in the front of the shoulder and then removes a small piece of the coracoid bone and conjoined tendon. The procedure has a high success rate, eliminating recurrent shoulder instability in 90% of patients.

To accomplish this, the coracoid is harvested and prepared using a sagittal saw, saline irrigation, and decortication of the inferior bony surface. The coracoid is then split in two using a #15-blade scalpel and a Cobb retractor. The surgeon may also use the Gelpi retractor to expose and retract the subscapularis. Finally, the surgeon completes the operation with an L-shaped capsulotomy using a #15-blade scalpels.

The coracoid is then debrided, with a Cobb reactor, one-half-inch osteotome, or Kocher forceps. After the coracoid has been repositioned, the surgeon visualizes the musculocutaneous nerve. The nerve is then released from the coracoid and is prepped for the traditional Latarjet procedure.

The Latarjet procedure during the coracoid process is a proven and effective treatment for anterior shoulder instability. The procedure also involves a risk of causing changes in the neurovascular anatomy of the shoulder.

Sub coracoid stenosis

A sub coracoid lidocaine injection can help to rule out other causes of pain. Although standard radiographs may be useful in making the diagnosis, they are often unable to differentiate between CI syndrome and other causes of pain. A more accurate and detailed diagnosis of CI is attainable with the use of computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, several studies have found that patients with CI suffer from a narrowing of the CHD.

Sub coracoid stenosis affects the anterior portion of the coracoid process, near the biceps tendon. This type of stenosis is often associated with other conditions such as calcific bursitis or acromial bursitis. Symptoms of this condition can be similar to those of full-thickness rotator cuff tears.

The cause of subcoracoid sense is not clear, although it is thought to be caused by a traumatic fracture of the humeral neck, coracoid, or glenoid. Other possible causes are variations in the size of the coracoid or overuse of the subscapularis. Conservative management involves a rehabilitation program focused on reattachment and scapular stabilization.

Epiphyseal plate

Radiographic imaging can be helpful in the diagnosis of coracoid fracture. Most coronoid fractures can be identified on the true AP and papillary projections of the glenohumeral joint, but oblique views may be required to identify adjacent bony structures. The presence of epiphyseal lines may complicate evaluation. A weight-bearing AP view is often performed in cases where the coracoid process is fractured near the SSSC.

The two main ossification centers of the coracoid process are located at its base and tip. Avulsion injuries in children usually result in a fracture of the epiphyseal base of the coracoid. In some instances, an avulsion fracture of the coracoid process also results in a fracture of the upper third of the glenoid.

While physical injuries are relatively uncommon, increased participation in year-round sports and other physical activities is likely to increase the incidence of these injuries. To determine the incidence of such injuries, PubMed, and Scopus were searched. A search using citation tracking revealed additional articles, and full-text articles were included if they contained relevant information.

The coracoid process is one of the most important anatomic joints in the shoulder. It is made up of 3 bones and serves as a site of attachment for several muscles. The pectoralis minor attaches to the medial aspect of the coracoid, and the short head of the biceps attaches to the lateral side of the coracoid.

Coracoacromial ligament

The Coracoacromial ligament connects the acromion to the clavicle. This ligament attaches to the clavicle at the conoid tubercle, which is posterior to the trapezoid tubercle. This ligament has a wide inferior attachment and a narrow superior attachment. The ligament wraps around the coracoid process’ posteromedial aspect.

The coracoacromial ligament and the coracoid process to attach to the lateral border of the coracoid. The coracoacromial process also has a fibrocartilaginous structure called the glenoid labrum. It functions to deepen the glenoid cavity and stabilize the glenohumeral joint.

The coracoacromial ligament is a strong triangular ligament that runs from the acromion to the coracoid process. During shoulder surgery, it may be moved to the clavicle. The lateral border of the coracoacromial ligament forms a “vault” to protect the humerus head. Its relationship to the deltoid muscle and the supraspinatus tendon is discussed below.

Researchers have found that the rotator cuff footprints were closer to the acromion than other parts of the coracoacromial arch. Additionally, they found that the distance between the acromion and the coracoid process was less than 10mm. Therefore, the rotator cuff may be displaced as a result of severe forces.

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